Qf 1 pounder shell

There were many variants produced, often under license which ranged in length from 32 to 50 calibers but 40 caliber was the most common version. They were widely used by the navies of a number of nations and often used by both sides in a conflict.

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The French Navy used two versions of the Hotchkiss 3-pounder: the short-barreled caliber M and the long-barreled caliber M The 3-pounder was primarily used as anti- torpedo boat defense aboard armored cruisersdestroyersironcladspre-dreadnought battleships, protected cruisers and submarines. During World War I, the role of the guns changed from anti-torpedo boat defense to anti-aircraft defense and new high angle mounts were developed but were found to be ineffective.

A 3-pounder Hotchkiss was used on an improvised mounting in a battle that resulted in Australia's first prisoners of World War 2 being captured near Berbera in The Austro-Hungarian Navy used two versions of the Hotchkiss 3-pounder. These two guns were the primary rapid fire anti-torpedo boat guns of many ships built or refitted between and Both sides in the battle were armed with Hotchkiss guns.

China adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder in the s, to arm its cruisers and smaller auxiliaries; the Hai Yung-class cruisers of the Imperial Chinese Navy built by AG Vulcan Stettin were armed with Nordenfelt 3-pounder guns firing the same ammunition. Italy adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder in the s to arm its armored cruisersbattleshipsprotected cruisers, torpedo boats and torpedo cruisers. Ships on both sides of the Italo-Turkish war were armed with 3-pounder guns. Japan adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder 5-barrel revolver cannon in the s and later adopted the simpler single-barrel quick-firing weapon.

The Japanese versions of the 3-pounder were known as Yamanouchi guns and were largely identical to their British equivalents. During the Russo-Japanese Warships of both sides were armed with Hotchkiss 3-pounder guns. The Japanese found them to be ineffective and removed them after the war.

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Polish 47 mm Hotchkiss guns named the wz. Russia adopted the Hotchkiss 3-pounder 5-barrel revolver cannon in the s, and later adopted the less complicated single-barrel 43 caliber quick-firing weapon. The 5-barrel guns were equipped on the Ekaterina II-class battleships commissioned in but by the battleship Dvenadsat Apostolov and her successors had single-barrel weapons.

In licensed production of a Russian variant started at the Obukhov State Plant. The Evstafi classcommissioned in ceased carrying the weapon but they were later fitted to patrol vessels and river craft during World War I and at least 62 weapons were converted to anti-aircraft guns by Of the 2, produced it is estimated that 1, were still available in for RN use. Early in WWII, it was also pressed into service in ports around the British Empire, to defend against possible incursions by motor torpedo boats, until the modern QF 6 pounder 10 cwt gun became available.

The US Navy used several types of 3-pounder guns from multiple manufacturers and it is difficult to determine from references which type a particular ship carried.

Hotchkiss 3-pounder 5-barrel revolving cannons were used, along with single-barrel quick-firing single-shot Hotchkiss 3-pounders. Both are called rapid-firing RF in references.

Ships on both sides in the Spanish—American War were armed with Hotchkiss 3-pounders. Although removed from first-line warships by World War I, some 3-pounders were fitted on patrol vessels, with a few weapons serving on those ships through World War II.It was used by several countries initially as an infantry gun and later as a light anti-aircraft gun. Hiram Maxim originally designed the Pom-Pom in the late s as an enlarged version of the Maxim machine gun.

Its longer range necessitated exploding projectiles to judge range, which in turn dictated a shell weight of at least grams 0. Petersburg Declaration of and reaffirmed in the Hague Convention of Early versions were sold under the Maxim-Nordenfelt label, whereas versions in British service i. They are all effectively the same gun. The Belgian Army used the gun on a high-angle field carriage mounting.

A version was produced in Germany for both Navy and Army. Four guns were used mounted on field carriages in the German South West Africa campaign inagainst South African forces. The British government initially rejected the gun but other countries bought it, including the South African Republic Transvaal government. The Boers' Maxim was also a large caliber, belt-fed, water-cooled machine gun that fired explosive rounds smokeless ammunition at rounds per minute.

In response, Vickers-Maxim of Britain shipped either 57 or 50 [10] guns out to the British Army in South Africa, with the first three arriving in time for the Battle of Paardeberg of February In World War I, it was used as an early anti-aircraft gun in the home defence of Britain.

There was no shrapnel available for them, and the shell provided for them would not burst on aeroplane fabric but fell back to earth as solid projectiles Nevertheless, Lieutenant O. Hogg of No. The British Army did not employ it as an infantry weapon in World War I, as its shell was considered too small for use against any objects or fortifications and British doctrine relied on shrapnel fired by QF 13 pounder and pounder field guns as its primary medium range anti-personnel weapon.

The British are reported to have initially used some Common pointed shells semi-armour piercing, with fuse in the shell base in the Boer War, in addition to the standard Common shell.

However, the common pointed shell proved unsatisfactory, with the base fuse frequently working loose and falling out during flight.

qf 1 pounder shell

The U. The Mark 7, 9, 14, and 15 weapons were similar. Previously, with the advent of the steel-hulled "New Navy" insome ships were equipped with the 1-pounder Hotchkiss revolving cannon.

In the aftermath of the Battle of Blair Mountainthe United States Army deployed artillery, including pompoms: "Their armament was strengthened with a howitzer and two pompoms. Rapid-firing single shot, similar to non-automatic QF guns 1-pounders were also used, including the Sponsell gun and eight other marks; the Mark 10 to be mounted on aircraft.

Designs included Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder. A semi-automatic weapon and a line throwing version were also adopted. Semi-automatic in this case meant a weapon in which the breech was opened and cartridge ejected automatically after firing, ready for manual loading of the next round.

It is often difficult to determine from references whether "1-pounder RF" refers to single-shot, revolving cannon, or Maxim-Nordenfelt weapons.

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Type of Autocannon. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June German service.

QF 2-pounder naval gun

British service during the Second Boer War. Australian troopers with a captured 1 pounder in South Africa circa.

qf 1 pounder shell

Mk I Steel shell Imperial War Museum Collections Search. Retrieved 18 February Gun", The large boxes on the right are for ammunition. This is a low velocity mounting. Also known as the "multiple pom-pom," this weapon was essentially a redesign of the 2-pdr Mark II to suit an eight gun mounting. The Mark VIII used the same barrel as the previous weapon, but the new design did have an improved automatic mechanism and replaced fabric belts with steel-links belts which reduced jamming.

It has been speculated that the reason that the 2-pdr shell was selected for this weapon was because there were about 2, rounds left over from the First World War.

This weapon had a long development history. This was modestly successful, and as a result design work was begun by Vickers and Armstrong on various multiple-gun designs. Armstrong produced a design that allowed continuous fire while the Vickers design did not, but the Armstrong product was also a more complicated design. Vickers won the contract and presented an eight-gun mockup for examination in July at Vickers, Dartford. Lack of funding delayed proving ground firing trials out towith sea trials aboard HMS Tiger not being held until Service introduction was delayed to the end of and consisted of a single mounting installed on HMS Valiant.

Satisfactory completion of trials on Valiant encouraged the Treasury to increase funding and during Nelson, Rodney and Revenge each received one mounting while Hood received two.

The following year saw Furious and Royal Sovereign each receiving two mountings while Renown received one. Production was slow up until just before the war started. At the time of its service introduction in this was a very advanced weapon, but by the rapid improvements in aircraft design had rendered it obsolescent, as it had a low muzzle velocity, lacked a satisfactory explosive shell and no tracer ammunition was provided.

To remedy some of these issues, a higher velocity projectile HV was introduced in but this required a different breech mechanism and other changes to the firing gear. However, guns firing only the older low-velocity projectiles were still manufactured throughout World War II. High velocity and low velocity ammunition and guns were not interchangeable. There were also several other gun variations, as shown in the data tables below.

It should be noted that standardization was never a high priority in British ordnance thinking prior to the s. These guns were manufactured in large numbers throughout World War II, with total production being about twice the number of Bofors 40 mm guns used by the Royal Navy. The Naval Gun Register shows that 6, guns were made in Britain including 12 prototypes and a further guns were manufactured in Canada. There were also ex-land service Army guns made which were scrapped in Single and quad mountings for smaller ships were also produced afterwith the single mounting being widely used as a bow-chaser on coastal convoy escorts during the war.

As originally introduced, this was a recoil operated, "controlled" essentially semi-automatic weapon which used a manually turned crank to operate the firing gear in the quadruple and octuple mountings see note below for a further explanation. In the octuple mountings design was changed to allow fully automatic firing but this was not extended to the quadruple mountings which were only produced in controlled versions throughout the war.

However, the quadruple mountings did replace the crank-turning crewmember with an electric motor sometime during the war. The internal gun mechanisms were very complex and required much care and skilled maintenance to keep them in working condition.

Jams and stoppages were frequent, although the linked ammunition proved to be more reliable in service than the older belt-fed guns.

Constructed of monobloc barrel and the breech block moved parallel with the gun axis. Actual bore length was Quadruple mountings had right and left hand upper and lower guns and single guns were RHI. For all outer guns and for the upper guns in quadruple mountings, the connecting block in the gun - which took the barrel, buffer cylinders and ejector tube - was lengthened by 13 inches 33 cm to allow the ammunition feed for inner and lower guns to pass through.

The common filler for these was a prominent funnel at the rear of the gun assemblies, as can be seen in the sketch of the Mark VII quad mounting shown below.

This means that at some point they are all going to be firing simultaneously, causing obvious shock and vibration problems as well as creating a "gap" in the bullet stream. An alternative to letting the guns fire freely is to synchronize them in some manner such that they fire sequentially and in a pre-determined pattern.It formed the backbone of the Royal Field Artillery during the war, and was produced in large numbers.

It was used by British Forces in all the main theatres, and by British troops in Russia in It was generally horse drawn until mechanisation in the s. The first versions were introduced in Later versions remained in service with British forces until early During the interwar periodthe pounder was developed into the early versions of the equally famous Ordnance QF pounderwhich would form the basis of the British artillery forces during and after the Second World War in much the same fashion as the pounder had during First.

During the Second Boer Warthe British government realised that its field artillery was being overtaken by the more modern "quick-firing" guns of other major powers, and investigated replacements for its existing field gun, the BL pounder 7 cwt. InGeneral Sir Henry Brackenburythe then director-general of ordnance, sent officers to visit European gun makers.

At the same time, the British Cabinet ordered Field Marshal Lord Robertsthe Commander-in-Chief in South Africa, to send home artillery brigade and battery commanders "selected for their eminence and experience" to form an Equipment Committee.

British gun manufacturers were invited to propose designs. Of the many entries, five for the horse artillery gun and three for the field gun were selected and their makers invited to submit a "specimen".

These were tested inbut none was found suitable for service although they all had good features. The makers were called to a conference and agreed to collaborate to produce a composite design.

QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss

This used the Armstrong gun, Vickers ' recoil system, and Royal Ordnance Factory 's sighting and elevating gear and ammunition carrying. Four Artillery batteries of the composite design took part in trials of inand the new pounder design was accepted. The pounder was used on all fronts during the First World War.

It remained in service during the inter-war period. The pounder was a quick-firing horse-drawn field gun designed to be towed behind a limber and six horses. The gun barrel was wire-wound nickel-steel with a single-motion screw breech with a cartridge extractor.

It fired a fixed round of shell and cartridge fixed together, which was known as "quick firing" in British terminology. The lower carriage comprised a single hollow steel trail fixed to the centre of the axle-tree.

The limited traverse saddle supported the elevating mass and a shield. Traverse controls were on the left and elevation on the right of the saddle.

Recoil was by a hydraulic buffer with telescopic running-up springs to return the barrel to its firing position. The Equipment Committee's conditions required tangent sights i. However, the pounder entered service with rocking bar also called "bar and drum" sights — open sights with the option of a telescope on the left and a range scale in yards on the right of the cradle.

Category:Artillery ammunition before World War I

These arrangements also incorporated independent line of sight, meaning that the sights could remain laid on the target while the barrel was elevated or depressed. A clinometer was provided for indirect fire when the sight was aimed using a gun-arc a refined version of the expedient devices used in South Africa and aiming posts in line horizontally with the target.It was used by several countries initially as an infantry gun and later as a light anti-aircraft gun.

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Hiram Maxim originally designed the Pom-Pom in the late s as an enlarged version of the Maxim machine gun. Its longer range necessitated exploding projectiles to judge range, which in turn dictated a shell weight of at least grams 0. Petersburg Declaration of and reaffirmed in the Hague Convention of Early versions were sold under the Maxim-Nordenfelt label, whereas versions in British service i.

They are all effectively the same gun. The British government initially rejected the gun but other countries bought it, including the South African Republic Transvaal government.

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In response, Vickers-Maxim of Britain shipped either 57 or 50 [8] guns out to the British Army in South Africa, with the first three arriving in time for the Battle of Paardeberg of February In World War I, it was used as an early anti-aircraft gun in the home defence of Britain.

There was no shrapnel available for them, and the shell provided for them would not burst on aeroplane fabric but fell back to earth as solid projectiles Nevertheless, Lieutenant O.

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Hogg of No. The British Army did not employ it as an infantry weapon in World War I, as its shell was considered too small for use against any objects or fortifications and British doctrine relied on shrapnel fired by QF 13 pounder and pounder field guns as its primary medium range anti-personnel weapon.

The British are reported to have initially used some Common pointed shells semi-armour piercing, with fuze in the shell base in the Boer War, in addition to the standard Common shell. However, the common pointed shell proved unsatisfactory, with the base fuze frequently working loose and falling out during flight.

A version was produced in Germany for both Navy and Army. Four guns were used mounted on field carriages in the German campaign in South West Africa inagainst South African forces. The Belgian Army used the gun on a high-angle field carriage mounting. On USS Vixencirca. The U. Sign In Don't have an account? Not to be confused with the QF 2 pounder naval gun also known as the pom-pom. Contents [ show ]. Mk I Steel shell Error creating thumbnail: Invalid thumbnail parameters.

Imperial War Museum Collections Search.The 2-pounder gun[note 1] officially designated the QF 2-pounder QF denoting "quick firing" and universally known as the pom-pomwas a millimetre 1. The name came from the sound that the original models make when firing.

qf 1 pounder shell

This QF 2-pounder was not the same gun as the Ordnance QF 2 pounderused by the British Army as an anti-tank gun and a tank gunalthough they both fired 2-pound 0. The first gun to be called a pom-pom was the 37 mm Nordenfelt-Maxim or "QF 1-pounder" introduced during the Second Boer Warthe smallest artillery piece of that war. The barrel was water-cooled, and the shells were belt-fed from a round fabric belt. This "auto cannon" fired explosive rounds smokeless ammunition at rounds per minute.

The Boers used them against the British, who, seeing their utility, bought guns from Vickerswho had acquired Maxim-Nordenfelt in The first naval pom-pom was the QF 1. It was ordered in by the Royal Navy as an anti-aircraft weapon for ships of cruiser size and below. The original models fired from hand-loaded fabric belts, although these were later replaced by steel-link belts.

This "scaling-up" process was not entirely successful, as it left the mechanism rather light and prone to faults such as rounds falling out of the belts. Insixteen 2-pounders were mounted in armoured lorries as the Pierce-Arrow armoured AA lorry. Inone example of this weapon was experimentally mounted on the upper envelope of His Majesty's Airship 23r. Surviving weapons were brought out of storage to see service in World War IImainly on board ships such as naval trawlersMotor Boats and "armed yachts".

It was used almost exclusively in the single-barrel, unpowered pedestal mountings P Mark II Royal Navy nomenclature gave mountings and guns their own distinct Mark numbers except for a small number of weapons on the mounting Mark XV, which was a twin-barreled, powered mount.

These were too heavy to be of any use at sea, and were therefore mounted ashore. All were scrapped by Some 7, guns were made. The Royal Navy had identified the need for a rapid-firing, multi-barrelled close-range anti-aircraft weapon at an early stage. Design work for such a weapon began in based on the earlier Mark II, undoubtedly to utilise the enormous stocks of 2-pounder ammunition left over from the First World War. Lack of funding led to a convoluted and drawn-out design and trials history, and it was not until that these weapons began to enter service.

The initial mounting was the These multiple gun mounts required four different guns and were nicknamed the "Chicago Piano".From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. It was used as an infantry support gun and early but ineffectual anti-aircraft gun.

Category:QF 1 pounder pom-pom

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Company. Media in category "QF 1 pounder pom-pom" The following 43 files are in this category, out of 43 total. QF 1 pounder field carriage and limber photograph. QF 1 pounder field carriage Mark II diagrams. QF 1 pounder gun horse team photograph. QF 1 pounder gun limber Mark II diagrams. QF 1 pounder Mark I gun mechanism and barrel diagrams. QF 1 pounder common shell cartridge Mark I diagram.

QF 1 pounder pom-pom Mk I steel shell diagram QF 1-pounder common shell cartridge diagrams Ammunition AM Deniz Muzesi Naval Museam. Maschinenkanone Krupp anagoria. Maxim Gun, 37 mm Naval version - Cassier's Shooting at floating mine, 23 March The Doris Gun in Devonport Park - geograph.

The Second Boer War, Q Veldartillerie in oorlogsmuseum. WWI-German mm Maxim Namespaces Category Discussion.

qf 1 pounder shell

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